Diseases Forum http://diseasesforum.com Fri, 17 Nov 2017 13:18:06 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=4.8.3 Kaposi Sarcoma – Causes, Symptoms, Pictures, Treatment http://diseasesforum.com/kaposi-sarcoma/ http://diseasesforum.com/kaposi-sarcoma/#respond Tue, 13 May 2014 08:28:33 +0000 http://diseasesforum.com/?p=243 No related posts. ]]> Kaposi sarcoma is rare cancer type that affects the skin, lymph nodes and mouth. It was Moritz Kaposi who invented this cancer in 1872 and hence the name Kaposi sarcoma. This cancer is characterized by abnormal growth of blood vessels and the presence of malignant lesions. This disease is caused by HIV virus and is prevalent in persons with weak immunity. The symptom of this disease is a clear signal that immune system is compromised. Due to advanced technology in medication, effective drugs have considerably reduced the chances of developing KS.

How Prevalent Is The Sarcoma?

People with compromised (weak) immunity are at high risk of developing Kaposi sarcoma. In 1980’s many cases of AIDS patients had developed KS also. Now due to HAART therapy the number of cases has drastically reduced in recent years. In countries like Zimbabwe and some other African regions still the number of KS cases is high.

Causes :

Herpes virus by name HHV-8 (Human Herpes Virus) is the root cause for Kaposi sarcoma. Men are more affected than women and the virus can easily be transmitted by sexual intercourse.

Kaposi Sarcoma Symptoms

Kaposi sarcoma affects your skin, mouth and the lymph nodes. Small sized tumors are formed beneath the skin surface and also on the mouth, nose and eyes. In some cases, the virus can spread to the viral organs like lungs, liver and stomach.

The skin lesions are flat papules appearing dark red or purple in color. Dark complexioned people will develop bluish or brownish skin lesions. These lesions are often seen in the form of raised bumps with a clear border. But they are painless and itch-free. Depending on the intensity of virus growth some people will develop more number of lesions than others where the process is slow.

In case the sarcoma spreads into the lymph nodes, the affected person may have difficulty in eating and drinking apart from severe abdominal pain due to internal bleeding. He/she may have nausea and vomiting sensation. It can also cause swelling of lymph nodes in the arms and legs and even on the face. In extreme cases, the person may have trouble in normal breathing.

Who Are At Risk ?

Kaposi sarcoma develops more in men than women (for no reason). Certain group of people like Caucasian men of Middle East and Mediterranean region are at high risk. Gay men have increased risk of developing KS. Individuals with weakened immunity (like those affected with HIV/AIDS) are prone to develop this cancer. KS have wide chances of spreading to your sex partner.

Tests

Mere physical examination of the patient is enough for diagnosing KS in most of the cases. Biopsy of the tissue sample is taken beneath the skin to confirm the diagnoses. In severe cases, your doctor may conduct bronchoscopy to find how far the lymph nodes of the lungs are affected. For individuals with severe abdominal pain, endoscopy of the intestine is done. For patients with respiratory difficulty, CXR is done.

Before starting any treatment, the doctor will assess the type and intensity of cancer based on three rating scales given below:-

Extent of tumor (how far the tumor causing cells have spread into the body), status of immunity (can be measured by blood count) and the extent of systemic illness (how far the cancer have involved other organs) are the 3 criteria used for treatment.

Images, Pics, Photos and Pictures of Kaposi Sarcoma :

Kaposi Sarcoma Kaposi Sarcoma Kaposi Sarcoma Kaposi Sarcoma

Treatment

HAART therapy is very effective method for treating Kaposi sarcoma. Skin lesions can be removed by other ways like using liquid nitrogen, using radiation therapy, removing by injection of alpha interferon and by removing it surgically.

Chemotherapy is done if the case is severe and the tumor has spread far into the internal organs. Anti cancer drugs like Velban, Bleomycin, Oncovin, Doxil or Taxol are prescribed. However chemotherapy drugs can cause unwanted effects like loss of hair, fever, constipation, diarrhea, mouth sores, and change in skin color and numbness in extremities. Biological therapy is the process of activating the body’s own immune system to produce more number of antibodies for destroying virus.

Prevention :

There are no specific methods to prevent developing KS. One can practice safe sex and go for regular health checkups to assure that immune system is functioning well.

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Meningitis – Symptoms, Causes, Treatment http://diseasesforum.com/meningitis/ http://diseasesforum.com/meningitis/#respond Thu, 24 Apr 2014 11:17:57 +0000 http://diseasesforum.com/?p=234 No related posts. ]]> Meningitis is a disease related to brain/spinal cord causing severe headache and fever. The meninges are soft membranes that cover the brain which becomes swollen during this infection. Meningitis is caused by virus and sometimes by bacteria or fungus. If detected in early stages, this disease can be managed by suitable medications but if ignored it can cause serious complications or even death. This infection occurs mostly in children or young adults.

Types :

Meningitis is of two types namely viral meningitis (caused by virus which does not become very serious) and bacterial meningitis (caused by bacterial infection and can be life threatening).

Meningitis Symptoms :

Some of the symptoms of meningitis resemble that of influenza. It causes high fever (developed suddenly), headache and stiffness in the neck. It may also cause nausea, vomiting, confusion of thoughts, difficulty in concentrating and sleepiness. Many children would develop sudden seizures with high fever. The child may become very sensitive to light and may have difficulty in eating/drinking.

In infants meningitis symptoms do not cause headache or stiff neck, but the child may develop high fever with constant crying. He may not be active as before and for some infants a tiny spot is seen on the baby’s forehead. He may develop seizures, rash and refuse to eat. If you observe any of the above symptoms in your child/infant, visit your doctor immediately. The more delay you make the more will be the complication. Only a doctor can distinguish the type of meningitis and sometimes bacterial meningitis is very deadly.

Meningitis Causes :

Very often, meningitis is caused by viral infection but in some cases bacterium can cause meningitis and in rare cases even fungus can cause this infection. The disease is contagious and can spread easily by droplets of cough through air. Bacteria would enter the body and travel to the brain gradually. Sometimes it may invade the soft mucous membranes (meninges) of your brain after sinusitis/ear infection/skull fracture or sudden fall.

Some of the bacteria that cause meningitis include streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitis, Hemophilus influenza, and Listeria monocytogenes. Vaccines are available for preventing many of the above mentioned bacterial infection. Viral meningitis is often caused by enteroviruses and most of them are not serious and does not require immediate treatment. The virus will be infecting small children and infants during late summer or early fall. In rare cases meningitis may become chronic causing symptoms of high fever, confusion, nausea and vomiting for weeks together. Often it attacks people of weak immunity. Meningitis can also be caused by allergic reactions of medications, certain chemicals and some cancer types like sarcoidosis.

Risk Factors :

You are putting your child’s life at risk for developing meningitis if you are not properly vaccinating him. Meningitis often occurs on infants and young children and hence children below 6 years have increased risk for developing this infection. Bacterial infections can occur on individuals below 20 years and this is more particular for those who live in community settings.

Since meningitis is contagious, the infected person can easily spread the disease on camps, college dormitories and boarding schools. Being pregnant puts you under risk of developing listeriosis (bacterial meningitis). Individuals with weakened immune system (having AIDS, diabetes etc.) are more susceptible to develop meningitis than others. Those who have recently undergone spleen surgery are at high risk.

Complications :

Meningitis, if left untreated can cause serious complications like loss of hearing, poor concentration, disability in learning, seizures, brain damage, kidney failure, gait and sometimes death.

Tests :

Your doctor would look for the above symptoms and order for certain diagnostic tests like blood culture and imaging tests like CT or MRI scan. It would reveal inflammation of meninges or sinus infection. He may do a lumbar puncture for collecting cerebrospinal fluid and testing it in the laboratory. The result would also clearly indicate the type of bacterium that has caused the infection.

Meningitis Treatment :

Your doctor should identify the type of meningitis infection before starting the course of treatment. Bacterial meningitis are treated with antibiotics (intravenously) or by oral corticosteroid medications. In case of any ear infection or sinus infection it has to be treated separately. Viral meningitis can be managed by over the counter medications and by taking complete bed rest. In severe cases, antiviral medication is prescribed.

The infected person has to drink plenty of fluids to keep hydrated and can use pain relievers for reducing body pain and fever. If the result indicates it is fungal meningitis then your doctor may prescribe antifungal drugs. Chronic meningitis is often of fungal origin. If meningitis has developed due to weakened immunity your doctor would prescribe suitable cortisone drugs.

Images, Pics, Photos and Pictures of Meningitis :

Meningitis Meningitis Meningitis Meningitis Meningitis

Prevention :

The best way to prevent meningitis is to get your child completely immunized. Every child should take regular shots for preventing measles, pneumonia, chickenpox and influenza. Meningococcal vaccine is available for preventing bacterial meningitis. Follow good hygiene by washing your hands thoroughly with medicated soap solution before eating and after using the toilet. Avoid spending more of your time in crowded places which puts you under risk of developing the infection.

Exercise regularly and stay healthy to keep your immunity in good condition. Pregnant women would be cautious while eating outside foods especially when eating hot dogs/undercooked meat. Choose only pasteurized milk products and check the label twice before consuming it. Infants of 2 months age can be vaccinated for Hib (Haemophilus influenza) and Pneumococcal vaccine can be given for children (2-5 years). Now single dose of Meningococcal conjugate vaccine can be given for children (11-13 years) with additional shot at 16 years.

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Guttate Psoriasis – Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, Pictures, Remedies http://diseasesforum.com/guttate-psoriasis/ http://diseasesforum.com/guttate-psoriasis/#respond Wed, 23 Apr 2014 06:12:12 +0000 http://diseasesforum.com/?p=223 No related posts. ]]> The term “guttate” means to drop in Latin. Guttate psoriasis is a skin rash which is marked by red colored small rashes resembling teardrop on the arms and legs. The rash will be very small looking like that of teardrop. It is one of the most common types of psoriasis affecting more than 10% of the population with autoimmune disorder. The rash can be treated and cured completely.

Guttate Psoriasis Symptoms :

The major symptoms of guttate psoriasis include small raised red spots on the skin looking like teardrops. They are either red or pinkish red in color. The spots are usually covered with scales or flaky skin. There will be moderate to intense itching. The rashes would be seen mostly on the arms and legs, but sometimes it also occurs on the trunk and other areas of the body. Some people psoriasis would cause burning sensation in addition to itching.

Causes Of Guttate Psoriasis :

This type of skin infection occurs often after the person had an infection like strep throat. Guttate psoriasis is an autoimmune disorder in which the body’s healthy cells are mistakenly destroyed by immune system. The infection run on families and can be passed over to offspring.

Factors like viral or bacterial infections or upper respiratory tract infection, injury or cut on the skin, insect bites or burns on the skin, intake of powerful medications, intense stress and over exposure to sun can induce guttate psoriasis. People who are in the habit of alcohol are likely to get skin infection. In addition individuals with weakened immunity and those who are treated for AIDS, cancer, rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune disorders have more risk of developing guttate psoriasis than others.

Diagnoses :

Very often, your doctor will detect guttate psoriasis by mere physical examination of the skin. He will look for raised red colored scaly rashes with well marked edges on your body. He would collect medical history of the patient to check whether he/she has been infected with strep throat, upper respiratory tract infection like tonsillitis earlier. Often the person would have got infected two or three weeks before getting the psoriasis. He would also enquire about the list of medications like antimalarial drugs, beta-blockers and non-steroidal drugs the patient is currently taking.

If needed, your doctor will do a skin biopsy for testing it in the laboratory. In case of throat infection, culture is done for checking the presence of bacteria. Guttate psoriasis is largely seen in winter and gets reduced during summer.

Treatment :

Often, no treatment is required for guttate psoriasis unless the person has severe itching and burning rashes. The purpose of treatment is to provide relief from the symptoms and to prevent further infection. Antibiotics are prescribed for managing infection like sore throat. Anti-itch creams that contain cortisone are useful in controlling itching. You can also use creams or lotions that contain coal tar. Apply moisturizing cream liberally on the affected skin areas to keep it moist and dry-free.

Depending on the condition, your doctor would prescribe vitamin D pills either orally or in the form of topical creams. Normally the rash would resolve within few days with simple home remedies. In rare cases methotrexate or cyclosporine is given to suppress the immune system. Phototherapy or ultraviolet B therapy is given for individuals with severe type of rash that are not responding to other creams. Creams that contain corticosteroids are effective in managing itching and for suppressing the immune’s system response. In case the doctor suspects strep infection he may prescribe antimicrobial drugs like Amoxicilin or erythromycin.

Phototherapy :

Guttate lesions can be managed by psoralen based ultraviolet A radiation also known as PUVA. This is possible by mast cell activation for destroying guttate lesions. Either narrowband UV therapy or PUVA is administered for treating severe lesions. PUVA therapy will destroy the excess of skin growth thereby clearing guttate psoriasis on the palms and feet. However in some cases PUVA therapy may produce side effects like vomiting, itching and hypo-pigmentation effect.

Biologic Medications :

Biologic drugs shortly called as biologics is given by IV injection for treating psoriasis. This protein cells act by blocking specific kind of proteins (TNF alpha) thereby reduces the psoriasis to large extent. To some extent, exposure of the affected skin to sunlight will reduce the psoriasis gradually since sunlight contains both ultraviolet A and B. Do not overexpose the body to sunlight causing sunburn. You need to cover the unaffected areas by sunscreen lotion while taking sunbath.

Laser Therapy :

FDA has approved excime laser for treating guttate psoriasis which would produce high frequency ultraviolet B. Mild to moderate type of psoriasis can be treated by this method. Pulsed dye laser is administered for destroying tiny blood vessels that induce formation of lesions. To achieve the desired effect 4-6 sessions of 30 minutes each should be taken.

Images, Pics, Photos and Pictures of Guttate Psoriasis :

Guttate Psoriasis Guttate Psoriasis Guttate Psoriasis Guttate Psoriasis Guttate Psoriasis Guttate Psoriasis Guttate Psoriasis

Guttate Psoriasis Home Remedies :

Tanning beds would emit UVA or UVA light producing the same effect of PUVA therapy. Over the counter topical creams containing steroids can be used for treating mild to moderate psoriasis. Most of these creams contain coal tar and salicylic acid. Products that contain aloe vera and jojoba can be used liberally for reliving itching.

Moisturize the skin to keep it dry-free and nourished which would gradually reduce itching and redness. Oatmeal bath and adding Epsom salts on your bathtub can provide great relief from itching. Anti-itch guard ointments that contain calamine, camphor, benzocaine and menthol can be used.

Prognosis :

Very often guttate psoriasis can be treated fully but for some it can become chronic causing lesions now and then.

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Scabies – Rash, Treatment, Symptoms, Causes, Pictures http://diseasesforum.com/scabies/ http://diseasesforum.com/scabies/#respond Wed, 23 Apr 2014 05:54:40 +0000 http://diseasesforum.com/?p=212 No related posts. ]]> Scabies are skin infection caused by tiny insects leading to severe itching. The tiny mites will make burrows on the skin area urging the person to scratch intensely. The scratching and itching will be severe during night. Scabies can be transmitted by direct skin contact but it can be fully cured by oral or topical creams. Since scabies can spread quickly the entire family can get infected even if one person of the family gets scabies infection. It spreads easily in social group like classroom, child care center, and nursing home. Scabies is one of the common types of sexually transmitted diseases since it spreads quickly by sexual contact.

Scabies Symptoms :

Itching (moderate to severe) of the skin is the first sign of scabies. Itching grows severe during night disturbing quality sleep. There can be burrow tracks or tiny blisters on the skin forming bumps or lesions. Folds of the skin are largely affected by scabies. Some of the body parts where burrow tracks are found are between two fingers, armpits, waistline, inner elbow, soles of feet, male genitals, breasts (for women), shoulder blades, knees and buttocks. Itching may not occur for first few weeks the mites has entered your body. But after a month or two, itching will be intense and worst at night.

For children, lesions will be seen on face, neck and scalp in addition to palms and soles of feet. Scabies rash would create small blisters or red colored bumps on the skin. These bumps are called papules which contain blood crusts. The burrows will look like threadlike projection measuring 2-10mm long. Small grayish brown or red lines can be seen on the affected areas of skin.

Scabies Causes :

Scabies are caused by itch mite by name sarcoptes scabiei. These mites are tiny insects having 8 legs measuring 1/3 mm in length. They create burrows on the skin areas to penetrate which causes severe itching. The females will enter the skin through burrows and deposit eggs which will be hatched into larvae in 3 days. These larvae will get back to the surface of the skin and spread to other areas. It cannot be seen by naked eye and doctors’ use magnifying lens for identifying these mites.

Scabies are common skin infection affecting millions of people worldwide and they spread quickly in social set-up like hospital, clinic, institutions and child-care centers. You can get infested from dogs, cats and other pets though animal mites are different from that of human mites.

How does scabies spread?

Scabies mites cannot live without the host for more than 24 hours. It can get transmitted by direct skin contact with infected person. Chances of getting scabies mites by sharing clothing, bedding of infested person is less. You can get easily infected by having sexual activity with infected person. Scabies are considered to be the most common type of STD for sex workers and youngsters.

Risk Factors :

Close skin to skin contact, sexual intercourse, and prolonged hugging are the main risk factors for getting scabies. Outbreaks can occur in social settings like school, hospital and institutions.

Diagnoses :

The doctor would examine the body physically and look for typical symptoms of unrelenting itch. He would look for evidence of mite’s presence by scraping test. He would gently scrape the skin on the burrow areas and examine it under microscope to identify mites or eggs.

Complications :

Severe itching (at night) can scratch or break your skin giving room for secondary infection like impetigo. It might weaken the immune system of the person if he/she is having chronic health problems. Crusted scabies often produces scaly patches covering large areas of skin making it difficult to treat.

Treatment :

Prescription medication like scabicide is given for treating scabies. Compounds that contain permethrin are given in the form of topical creams. It should be applied liberally on the affected skin and left overnight and washed off in the morning. The same drug should be used at least for 10 days.

Alternatively 30 gm of lindane cream can be applied on the affected skin and kept for 8-10 hours. This cream should not be used by nursing mother and pregnant women and children/elderly people. Oral medications include Iyermectin which is effective in curing scabies infection. Crotamiton lotion like Eurax is an approved drug for managing scabies rash. Antihistamines like Benadryl can give temporary relief from itching.

Images, Pics, Photos and Pictures of Scabies :

Scabies Scabies Scabies Scabies Scabies Scabies Scabies Scabies Scabies

Home Remedies :

After using medication, you need to wash the bedclothes and linens in hot water to prevent possibility of getting mites again. Treatment is to be given for all family members since it is contagious. Itching may continue for several weeks even after the mites/eggs have been destroyed. Apply soothing lotion like calamine to get relief from inflammation of skin. You can also apply wet clothing on the affected area.

Prevention :

Clean all bed clothing and linens in hot water. Use high heat formula for drying which would destroy the mites. You can opt for dry-cleaning by storing the affected clothing in sealed plastic bags. Mites cannot survive without food (blood) and will die within a day or two.

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Paresthesia http://diseasesforum.com/paresthesia/ http://diseasesforum.com/paresthesia/#respond Sat, 22 Feb 2014 12:11:21 +0000 http://diseasesforum.com/?p=207 No related posts. ]]> Paresthesia is the condition in which one experience a tingling or prickling sensation in his feet and arms. Often it occurs on the extremities of the body but sometime it can occur in other parts of the body. It can be described as “skin crawling” process but will not cause any pain. Very often we all will experience paresthesia temporarily due to restricted blood flow. You may feel numbness on your legs when you get up after sitting for long hours. This disorder occurs when the pressure is built up on the nerve for long time. Most of the time, the strange feeling will disappear once the pressure is relieved.

Paresthesia is a neurological problem and caused by various problems in central nervous system like stroke, ischemic attacks, multiple sclerosis and presence of tumors in brain or spine. It occurs as strong symptom in people with carpal tunnel syndrome. You should seek immediate medical care if you have numbness in your hands and legs along with paralysis, confusion of thoughts, slurred speech and loss of bowel control since it can be serious. Paresthesia is generally a mild problem and it very rarely causes complications. But you need to explore the underlying medical issues since paresthesia can be a symptom.

Paresthesia Causes :

Paresthesia is caused due to prolonged nerve compression or nerve damage. Generally it is a symptom of underlying medical problem or disorder or nerve injury. Sitting in the same position for extended hours can develop nerve pressure on the legs and it can cause tingling sensation when you get up.

Certain orthopedic conditions like neck injury, bone fractures, tightened casting, herniated disk and disorders on the nervous system can cause paresthesia. Paresthesia can develop due to neurological reasons that include brain tumor, alcoholism, and diabetic neuropathy, tangled knot of veins that exerts force on the spine, heavy metal poisoning, multiple sclerosis, peripheral neuropathy, stroke, transient ischemic attack and spinal cord injury. Even deficiency of vitamin B12 can cause paresthesia symptoms.

Signs and Symptoms :

Paresthesia is not a disease by itself but is a symptom of underlying neurological disease. The symptoms of paresthesia differ widely from one person to another depending on the causative factor and intensity of underlying disease. It can be temporary or chronic. Tingling sensation, numbness, itching sensation, footdrop, dysarthria, crawling sensation, ocular dysmetria, muscular atrophy and numbness in legs and hands are some of the common symptoms of paresthesia.

Some people may describe the symptoms as pins and needles, and others may feel like burning sensation. It can cause intense pain on some parts of the body where nerves are affected. In addition to the above, there can be anxiety, muscle spasms, frequent urination and sensitivity to touch on the affected part of the skin. In rare cases, there can be serious symptoms along with tingling sensation like paralysis, confusion, dizziness, difficulty in breathing, loss of vision and loss of bladder control.

Diagnoses :

The doctor will physically examine the body and collect information about the nature of symptoms experienced by the person. He would get the complete medical history of the patient and would order for blood culture in the lab. Based on the seriousness of the symptoms felt by the person, he may order for various tests.

Transient paresthesia can cause panic attack and chronic paresthesia can be due to nerve pressure or poor circulation of blood or peripheral neuropathy. It is for the doctor to confirm the diagnoses before proceeding for treatment. Any undue delay in the treatment for paresthesia can cause partial paralysis on the affected part of the body like legs or hands. It can affect the loss of sensation permanently for some people based on the underlying medical issues.

Paresthesia Treatment :

Treatment options are varied depending on the underlying medical cause. In case poor circulatory problem is the actual cause of tingling sensation in the legs or hands, then your doctor will recommend doing stretching exercises and massaging the limbs to reduce the symptoms. If the causative factor is diabetes then medications are prescribed for controlling blood sugar levels. Sometimes paresthesia symptoms can occur due to side effects of chemotherapy then suitable anti-inflammatory drugs are given for relieving pain.

For moderate and severe symptoms, antidepressant drug like Amitriptyline is given. Usually low dose of this medication is started to get good relief from the symptoms. Actually the feeling of pain is felt due to brain’s command and by taking this drug you may not feel the pain. In severe cases, opium derivatives are also given based on the seriousness of symptoms and health condition of the patient.

For vitamin B12 deficiency diet rich in vitamins are suggested. In addition vitamin supplement is given in the form of oral pills. Overdoses of vitamins should be avoided since it can cause paresthesia symptoms. Corticosteroid mediations are recommended for reducing the discomfort feeling in the affected person. Topical creams like Lidocaine is also useful in providing relief.

Alternative Treatment :

Massage therapy, acupuncture and aroma therapy are followed by some people for getting relief from the symptoms like tingling sensation and numbness.

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Sciatica – Symptoms, Causes, Treatment http://diseasesforum.com/sciatica/ http://diseasesforum.com/sciatica/#respond Sun, 24 Nov 2013 12:16:22 +0000 http://diseasesforum.com/?p=202 No related posts. ]]> Sciatica is an intense pain that is felt from the lower back till the buttocks region and even beyond that till your leg. Often, sciatica will affect only one side of the body causing pain. Sciatic nerve is present in the herniated disk of the spine and when it gets compressed it causes pain. The area becomes inflamed and it can cause numbness in that region of the leg. In most of the cases, taking pain killer medications will resolve the problem. Only for severe pain caused by sciatica surgery is done to relieve the pressure from the sciatic nerve.

Sciatica Symptoms :

  •  There will be moderate to intense pain in the lower back which becomes intense when you sit down.
  •  Burning pain or tingling sensation on the leg
  •  Difficulty in moving the legs or foot of the affected side
  •  Pain will be continuous on one side of the back portion
  •  The pain becomes worse when the affected person attempts to stand up
  •  It comes as an electric shock and intense pain is felt when you are coughing and sneezing
  •  In rare cases it causes loss of bowel control

Depending on the intensity by which the sciatica nerve is affected the pain may be moderate or severe. Sometimes the pain will extend till the foot and even toes.

Sciatica Causes :

Sciatica pain is caused when the sciatic nerve gets compressed or irritated. It can occur due to the continuous pressure build-up in the lower lumbar region. Lowering of the passage of spinal canal can also cause sciatica. Degenerative disc disease and spondylolisthesis can cause intense pain on the sciatic nerve. Herniated disk and overgrowth of bone on the vertebral column can cause sciatica. Chronic condition of diabetes can intensify the pain.

Risk Factors :

Getting old, over-weight, work related stress caused on the lower back and prolonged sitting hours can increase the risk of sciatica. In rare cases, it can cause weakness and loss of feeling on the affected side of the leg. Also it can cause loss of bowel movement affecting the bladder function.

Diagnoses and Tests :

The doctor will look for the symptoms and will check the muscle strength on the affected area. He will ask you to walk on your heels and stand up in different positions to check if the pain worsens. He may order for imaging tests like X-ray, CT scan or MRI scan which will give a clear picture about the affected bones and soft tissues of the herniated disks.

Sciatica Treatment :

For mild to moderate pain it will resolve if you take rest and no treatment is required. Your doctor may prescribe medications for muscle relaxation and anti-inflammatory drugs to reduce swelling in the affected area. In severe cases, antidepressant or anti-seizure medicines are prescribed to reduce the pain. Physiotherapy is recommended for the affected people to strengthen the muscles, but it can be done only after the pain improves. Exercises are done for correcting the posture and supporting your back.

Steroid injections are given for quick relief from pain. The shot is given on the area of the affected nerve root. It is effective in healing inflammation and reducing pain but it produces serious side effects. Surgery is the last option for sciatica and is done only if the symptoms are not improving and not responding to any other treatment options. For some people who have lost bowel control surgery is done. Your surgeon will gently remove the excess of bone growth from the herniated disk that pinches the sciatic nerve.

Home Remedies :

You need to understand the set of activities that triggers and intensifies the pain and avoid those activities. Taking complete rest for couple of days will give you relief temporarily. You can apply cold packs or hot packs to the areas where pain is felt intensely. You can try using alternate hot and cold packs on the same area. Stretching exercises can be done for getting relief from compression of nerve root. Avoid doing any sudden jerking movement or twisting movements. Some people depend on alternative methods like acupuncture and chiropractic massage for improving the functions.

Images, Pics, Photos and Pictures of Sciatica :

Sciatica Sciatica

Prevention :

You cannot prevent sciatica but you can be careful to take precautionary methods for added protection. Do regular exercises giving more focus on the core muscles of the lower back and abdomen. Always maintain proper posture while standing up and sitting. Make sure that you have enough support for your back while sitting. You can keep a soft pillow on your back when your work warrants sitting for long hours. Get up and do some stretching exercises frequently. While lifting heavy objects always hold the load closer and avoid twisting movements.

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Acne Rosacea http://diseasesforum.com/acne-rosacea/ http://diseasesforum.com/acne-rosacea/#respond Sun, 24 Nov 2013 07:37:40 +0000 http://diseasesforum.com/?p=195 No related posts. ]]> Acne Rosacea Fast Facts :

  •  Acne rosacea is a chronic skin disease that affects both teenagers and adults.
  •  It causes redness on the face with periodic flares and remissions.
  •  It begins with facial blushing and is high on middle aged women who have fair complexion.
  •  Rosacea commonly occurs on the face and more particularly on the nose.
  •  The symptoms of acne rosacea will come and go and some people mistake this for allergic skin reaction.
  •  It would cause small red bumps on your face.
  •  There is no cure for rosacea but through effective treatments the symptoms can be managed.
  •  Some foods triggers acne rosacea and it gets worse when you are stressed or exposed to sunlight.

Unlike acne which affects only teenage people, rosacea is common in adults. The symptom of rosacea is markedly seen on the nose and central part of your face causing flushing reaction.

Symptoms :

Facial redness is very prominent in acne rosacea and it leaves the skin with permanent redness in the middle of your face. Actually small blood vessels on your face develop inflammation and become visible causing redness. Along with redness there will be tiny bumps on the face resembling acne. These lesions are pus filled blisters and the skin becomes tender and hot.

Some people will also experience dryness of eye and irritation. The eyelids may also become red and swollen. The nose area is mostly affected with rosacea and the nose looks thicker than other parts of the face. It looks as though you are having bulbous nose. This effect is more prominent in men than women. The symptoms will not stay forever on your face. It will come and go on periodic time. The skin will look clear for months together and suddenly there will be fresh rosacea symptoms on your face. For some people the symptoms would be present for years and if left untreated it may worsen.

Causes :

Acne rosacea is believed to be caused by many factors but no one factor is concrete. During rosacea the blood vessels of the skin become enlarged thereby increasing the blood flow to the face. Certain foods like hot spicy foods, beverages, alcohol, and exposure to extreme temperature, stress, exposure to sunlight, taking hot baths, strenuous exercise and use of corticosteroids can aggravate the symptoms of rosacea. Though many factors are predicted exact cause of rosacea still remains unclear.

Who are at risk?

Being a woman, having fair complexion increases the risk of getting rosacea. Very often middle aged women are affected. Rosacea is prominent in people with family history.

Tests and Diagnoses :

No lab tests are required for detecting acne rosacea since doctors can easily identify it through the symptoms on your face. However your doctor will have to rule out other skin conditions like psoriasis or eczema which causes similar symptoms. In rare cases, doctor may do a skin biopsy or skin scraping for confirming the diagnoses.

Treatment :

No cure is available for acne rosacea but symptoms can be controlled and managed by regular use of medications. Various types of treatment options like topical creams, oral medications, invasive surgeries and laser therapy are available for rosacea. For many people combination of one or two methods are effective in managing the symptoms.

Antibiotics :

Antibiotics are prescribed for reducing the effect of inflammation of blood vessels that cause redness of your face. Your doctor may give you gels or creams or lotions to be applied on your face. In case of severe symptoms you have to take oral pills for getting quick relief from the symptoms.

Metronidazole or Flagyl cream is one of the most popular lotions that are used for treating rosacea. You can cleanse the face and apply the cream over it for 2-3 times a day. Azelaic acid can also be used as an alternative for reducing the symptoms. Oral antibiotics like tetracycline, doxycycline, minocycline and amoxicillin are given. It helps in reducing the inflammation and redness on the skin.

Corticosteroids :

Steroid medications can be used only for short term for reducing heavy inflammation and redness. Desonide lotion or cream can be applied over the affected areas. Tretinoin, tazarotene and adapalene are also prescribed by doctors for acne rosacea. Isotretinoin is given for controlling severe symptoms and prescribed only if other methods of treatment are ineffective. You need to use soft cleansers like Rosanil or Clearasil on the face instead of harsh soaps.

Surgical Procedures :

Surgical intervention for rosacea is not uncommon for patients with severe redness. Laser surgery, photodynamic therapy and electro-surgery are administered for reducing the inflammation of blood vessels. The surgeon will gently remove the underlying tissue from the affected area for giving improved looks.

Laser therapy is being followed by many people nowadays but it can cause slight discomfort. It can be expensive and not covered by company insurance since it falls under cosmetic category. You have to repeat laser therapy for every 3-6 weeks interval for getting the best outcome.

Photodynamic Approach :

Topical photo sensitizer liquid or cream is applied on the affected part of the skin. Levulan and blue light are used simultaneously for treating inflammation of blood vessels. It is effective in removing pimples or acne and it also improves the quality of skin texture. Photodynamic therapy is not surgical process and can easily be performed in the doctor’s office. However for PDT or laser therapy one should strictly avoid going out in the sun for 3-5 days for getting the best positive results.

Initially PDT may cause sunburn like appearance on your face for few days. But it will slowly disappear making your skin flawless. For some patients this therapy is very effective in not getting any remissions for several months. At the most, it might take 1-2 hours for completing this therapy.

Other Methods :

Chemical peels are widely used for improving skin texture by patients affected with acne rosacea. Glycolic acid peel can be applied for 4-5 minutes on the skin for every week. It can cause mild itching and burning sensation. For some people the skin may peel off for several days after applying the lotion. It is essential for the person affected with rosacea to get total protection from the sunlight. You can use sunscreen lotions and wear a big hat that covers the entire face. Make sure that the cream you use contains SPF factor 30 for getting protection from sunlight.

Images, Pics, Photos and Pictures of Acne Rosacea :

Acne Rosacea Acne Rosacea Acne Rosacea Acne Rosacea

Lifestyle Changes :

Avoid foods that trigger rosacea. Do not go out in hot sunny day. As long as you are minimizing the exposure of sunlight you are reducing the chance of flare-ups. Even in winters you have to protect your face with a mask or scarf. Do not use harsh soaps on your skin since it can worsen the symptoms. Use gentle cleansing lotion that has no chemicals.

Do not keep on changing products expecting quick results. It takes some time for any topical cream or lotion to act on your skin reducing inflammation. Hence stick on to a product (recommended by your doctor) for at least 6 months. If you are not satisfied with the results you can change the product.

Foods that are to be avoided include hot and spicy items, dairy products like yogurt, cheese and sour cream, chocolates and alcohol (in any form). Smoking can make the symptoms worse and hence reduce it to minimum or quit smoking. Certain medications like vasodilators given for blood pressure can trigger the symptoms. You can discuss with your doctor to find suitable alternative.

Natural Remedies :

Green tea and vinegar are the best choices for treating acne rosacea. Green tea is believed to possess anti-inflammatory property and hence effective in curing redness.

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Toothache – Symptoms, Causes, Treatment http://diseasesforum.com/toothache/ http://diseasesforum.com/toothache/#respond Sat, 12 Oct 2013 18:37:37 +0000 http://diseasesforum.com/?p=188 No related posts. ]]> Toothache is the condition of having pain in and around your tooth. It is caused by many reasons like tooth decay, tooth fracture, cavities, infected gums and a damaged filling.

Toothache Symptoms

The intensity of pain may range from mild to severe. Toothache will cause swelling or inflammation of the tooth, sharp pain on the affected tooth. For some pain may increase while drinking anything cold and for some people the pain will be constant. It can also cause mild fever, headache in some individuals. In addition to the throbbing pain there can be foul smelling drainage from the tooth that has been infected.

The pain would start suddenly and get worse during night time. The area of the oral cavity that is close to the infected tooth may also become swollen and become tender to touch. For some people toothache is constant problem and for some others it will come and go.

Toothache Causes

  • Several reasons affect tooth causing infection and tooth decay.
  • Wrong brushing techniques and not taking care of dental hygiene is the primary cause of toothache.
  • Whenever your tooth gets infected the innermost layer of the teeth known as dental pulp gets swollen.
  • Dental pulp contains blood vessels and sensitive nerves and hence toothache is felt when the nerves get damaged.
  • Toothache can be caused by cavities (holes) in your tooth.
  • Sometimes cracks are formed on the tooth causing pain. Broken filings can cause toothache.
  • If the gums shrink down (receding) it exposes the inner soft part of the tooth which becomes sensitive when you drink something hot or cold.
  • Abscess formed on the tooth can cause bacterial infection forming pus inside the tooth leading to pain.
  • Swollen gums, ulcerous growth on your gums, sinusitis problem and any accidental injury to the jaw can also cause toothache.

Diagnoses :

Your dentist will examine your oral cavity and he will collect information about the symptoms. He will physically examine the gums, affected tooth and throat for ascertaining the reason. In case of dental fracture he may ask for dental X-rays for detecting the extent of damage.

Treatment

Your dentist will give treatment after verifying the actual cause for toothache. The nature of treatment varies with the causative factors for toothache. If he finds any decay of tooth, he will remove the decayed portion and fill the hole (cavity) with special paste. For some people filings will get loose or broken. In that case the entire filling is removed and fresh fillings are replaced in that area.

Root canal treatment is another option for toothache if the pulp is severely infected. It is lengthy procedure and expensive also. You will have to visit the dentist several times wherein he would remove the infected pulp and fill the cavity with special paste. He would then put a crown on top of it to prevent any infection. Very often the infected tooth will be protected by different options of treatment. In case if the impact on the tooth is high he will remove the infected tooth.

Toothache

Prevention :

You can prevent toothache by keeping your gums healthy. You should use proper brushing methods to brush your teeth twice a day. Use toothpaste that contains fluoride and do not exert harsh movements on your teeth. Instead gently brush the gums and teeth regularly. Flossing should be done at least thrice a week. Use mouthwash for preventing any bacterial infection.

Restrict taking sweetened items and cold drinks. In case you want to enjoy sweets consume it with your meal and not in between meals. Avoid taking snacks in-between meals. Visit your dentist regularly for cleaning your tooth using professional approach. Quit smoking since it can make your dental problems worse.

Home Remedies :

In case of toothache (for mild to moderate pain) you can take painkillers like Ibuprofen to get some relief from discomfort. Avoid drinking cold/hot drinks which will increase the pain. Soak a piece of cotton wool in clove oil and keep it on the infected tooth for few minutes. It is not advised to give aspirin to children.

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Anorexia Nervosa http://diseasesforum.com/anorexia-nervosa/ http://diseasesforum.com/anorexia-nervosa/#respond Sat, 12 Oct 2013 18:08:10 +0000 http://diseasesforum.com/?p=183 No related posts. ]]> Anorexia nervosa is a disorder in which the affected person will have an obsession about his weight gain and about the food he eats. Such individuals will maintain weight that is very much below the normal weight. It is an eating disorder that is characterized by starving and doing strenuous exercises to lose weight. This disorder is not about eating alone but is a serious emotional problem in which the affected person has intense fear of gaining weight and feels that he is worth only if he is thin.

He will think about dieting and losing weight all the time. It is difficult to treat. Anorexia nervosa begins in teen age and continues till adulthood. If not treated in early stages, it can become life threatening problem.

Anorexia Nervosa Symptoms :

The major symptoms of this disorder can be categorized into two heads namely physical and emotional symptoms. A person with anorexia nervosa will often think only about dieting and doing exercises to lose weight. Though he looks very thin for others, he would have intense feeling that he is overweight.

Some of the physical symptoms are extreme loss of weight, thin appearance, dizziness, insomnia, extreme tiredness, blue coloration in fingers (due to lack of blood), abnormal blood count, sleeping sickness, dry skin, constipation, irregular heartbeat, lowered blood pressure, osteoporosis, dehydration and swelling of arms and legs. Emotional problems in the affected individual includes fear of gaining weight, refusal to eat, social withdrawal, telling lies about eating food, lack of emotion, depression, decreased sexual drive, thinking always about dieting and food and use of laxatives.

Warning Signals To Watch :

If any of your family members or friends has anorexia nervosa then you can watch for the following red signals:-

• Skipping meals frequently and eating only very low calorie foods
• Often checking weight and checking in front of the mirror of becoming fat
• Refusal to eat or giving false excuses for not eating
• Social withdrawal and refusing to eat in public

Causes Of Anorexia Nervosa :

Many predictions are there about the causative factors for anorexia nervosa, but nothing has proof. It can be caused due to genes and also due to changes in brain chemicals. It can be caused due to personality disorder like OCD where people tend to be overly perfect and stick on to severe dieting. Cultural factor also plays a role in the modern society where females with thin figure are viewed as beautiful.

Risk Factors :

Girls are more affected with anorexia nervosa than boys since they care very much about their looks. This disorder is common in adolescents and is likely to develop in people with family history of this disorder. Sudden loss of weight can invoke good comments from the society can trigger anorexia nervosa. Emotional stress and any new environment can increase the risk.

Popular personalities and those who are in media have more risk for developing this disorder than others. If left untreated, this disorder can cause life threatening conditions like imbalance of electrolytes, anemia, heart problems, bone loss, kidney problems and gastrointestinal problems.

Diagnoses :

There is not one single test to detect anorexia nervosa. Doctors look for the symptoms and will order series of tests before confirming the disease. Blood test (for checking electrolytes balance, anemia), X-ray of chest, arms and legs for ruling out broken bones, absence of menstruation in females and psychological evaluation to analyze the person’s feelings and thoughts are done for checking the disorder. Your doctor will also check your heart and lungs condition which can indicate that you are not eating well.

Treatment :

Depending on the intensity of symptoms, some patients may need to be hospitalized for treating dehydration or electrolyte imbalance. In addition to medical care, psychological counseling has to be given for the affected person for getting positive response. For serious cases, feeding tube is inserted into the nose of the patient to restore the loss of electrolytes. The need for maintaining healthy weight is to be emphasized.

Psychotherapy is given in the form of cognitive behavior therapy to make the person fully aware of the consequences of losing weight continuously. Both the individual and family therapy is given if the affected person is not able to take any decision about his/her health. The counselor will find out the hidden cause for refusal of eating after repeated sessions of counseling. Nutrition education is given along with the ill-effects of not taking healthy diet.

For patients with depression or psychosis medications will be prescribed to relieve the symptoms. Many times, people with anorexia nervosa will refuse to cooperate with the doctor and counselor. It is the biggest challenge in treating this disorder since they will observe this disorder as lifestyle choice and not as a serious illness.

Images, Pics, Photos and Pictures of Anorexia Nervosa :

Anorexia Nervosa Anorexia Nervosa Anorexia Nervosa

Lifestyle Changes :

Attend your counseling sessions regularly and stick on to the treatment. Listen to your family members who want to keep you healthy and cheerful. Don’t check your weight often since it can mislead you again. Identify what is healthy weight for your age and height.

Prevention :

There is no way you can prevent developing anorexia nervosa symptoms. Be optimistic in approach and do not fall prey to false role models.

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Pink Eye – Symptoms, Causes, Treatment http://diseasesforum.com/pink-eye/ http://diseasesforum.com/pink-eye/#respond Fri, 04 Oct 2013 17:33:50 +0000 http://diseasesforum.com/?p=174 No related posts. ]]> Pink eye is the common name for conjunctivitis which is an eye infection. It is caused by bacteria or virus and sometimes due to allergic reactions. Pink eye can cause itchiness, burning sensation and redness of the membrane covering the eyelids. Usually the condition of pink eye will not affect vision. It is contagious spreading from one person to the other.

Pink eye will resolve automatically within few days or you can get it treated with antivirus drops. The infection caused by bacteria can affect the soft membrane of the eyelid causing swelling making the underlying tiny blood vessels visible. This is the reason for redness or pink color of the eyes.

Symptoms :

Some of the signs of pink eye are itchiness and redness in the affected eye. Individuals affected with this infection will feel as though sand is present in the eye due to consistent irritation and burning of eyes. It causes gritty feeling and most of the times it produces watery discharge. Many people find it difficult to open the eyes in the morning due to formation of white layer of crust on the eyelids. Pink eye is marked by the characteristic pink color or redness of the affected eye which is due to the inflammation of underlying small blood vessels.

Types :

Three major kinds of pink eye is diagnosed based on the cause of infection. Viral conjunctivitis produces itchiness and eyes become very sensitive to the light. It is highly contagious and anyone who inhales the droplets of the affected person while sneezing will get infected.

Bacterial infection produces symptoms like yellow discharge from the affected eye. Many times, the eyelids will stick together due to sticky discharge. It is contagious when comes into direct contact. Allergic type of infection shows signs of watery eyes with burning sensation. It can produce watery discharge along with mucus from the nose for one or two days. But it is not contagious.

Pink Eye Causes :

Pink eye (inflammation of mucous membrane of the eyelids) is caused by bacteria or viral infection. Sometimes it can be caused by exposing the eyes to chemicals and allergy producing substances like pollen grains etc. Presence of foreign objects in the eye can also cause pink eye. Viral infections will usually clear up within couple of days without treatment but infection caused by bacteria needs to be treated by antibiotic eye-drops. Allergic type of infection is caused by dust, pollen and other allergy producing substances like pet dander. In infants the condition of pink eye occurs when the tear ducts are blocked due to heat.

Who are at risk?

Pink eye is contagious and hence if you come in direct contact with infected person you are likely to get infected. When your eyes are exposed to particles that you already have allergy you may develop pink eye. Sometimes, wearing contact lenses for long period can cause infection. In rare cases, pink eye inflammation can cause blurred vision.

Diagnoses :

Your doctor will closely examine your eyes using special instrument to detect how far the infection has spread.

Pink Eye Treatment :

Antibiotic eye drops are given for treating pink eye caused by bacterial infection. You have to be careful in applying eye drops or ointment to the infants or young children since it may cause irritation and blurred vision for few minutes. Usually it will settle down within couple of days or three. If there is severe irritation and water like discharge you can consult your doctor.

In case of conjunctivitis caused by viral infection, no treatment is required. The infection and inflammation may last for 2-3 weeks and will disappear on its own. But it is contagious and hence you have to avoid social contacts until the infection is completely cleared. If the inflammation of lining of eyelids is caused by allergy, then your doctor may prescribe anti-allergic eye drops. Antihistamines are effective in treating allergic reactions on the eyes. You have to avoid allergy causing substances in future to prevent getting infection again.

Pink Eye Home Remedies :

For mild to moderate forms of infection caused by pink eye you can try the following home remedies.

  • Cool Compress :

Use a clean soft wet cloth and apply it gently on the infected eyes. It will produce soothing effect. Some people are comfortable in using warm compression also. Remember pink eye is mostly contagious and hence wash the cloth thoroughly before using it again. If you have infection on only one eye avoid touching the other eye with the same cloth.

  • Eye Drops :

Eye drops can be obtained without prescription for getting relief from irritation and redness. You can ask for eye drops that contain antihistamines for treating allergic form of pink eye.

  • Contact Lens :

Avoid wearing contact lenses once you get infected with pink eye. You can consult your doctor about using it again after the infection is cleared off.

Images, Pics, Photos and Pictures of Pink Eye :

Pink Eye Pink Eye Pink Eye Pink Eye Pink Eye

Prevention :

Pink eye infection is contagious and hence you can stay away from persons who are infected. Keep your eyes hygienic. Avoid touching your eyes often since it is the root cause to get allergic infection. In a new place, don’t share towels with unknown persons. Avoid using strong cosmetics on your eyes and do not change the eye cosmetics often, since it can cause allergic reaction causing pink eye. Avoid going to office or workplace until the infection is cured completely.

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